My GSoC 2017 - OpenAPI 3 Vert.x support

Francesco Guardiani bio photo By Francesco Guardiani

The support to OpenAPI 3 it’s located in maven package vertx-web-api-contract-openapi, and most classes extends/subclass from interfaces/classes inside maven package vertx-web-api-contract-common (the package designed to contain all API Specs standards common classes). Most important interfaces of vertx-web-api-contract-openapi are:

  • The OpenAPI3ValidationHandler class that fills BaseValidationHandler maps
  • The OpenAPI3RouterFactory, the interface that enable users create a router with your API spec

As I said in a previous blog post, OpenAPI 3 added a lot of new things, in particular about serialization styles and complex form bodies (url encoded and multipart). So when I started working on OpenAPI 3 requests validations, I had to add a lot of things to validation framework that I haven’t expected before.

The validation handler

OpenAPI3ValidationHandler is an interface extension of HTTPOperationRequestValidationHandler (located inside vertx-web-api-contract-common), that is an interface extension of ValidationHandler. This class contains all methods to elaborate the Operation object (Java representation of OAS3 operation object) and the list of Parameter objects (Java representation of OAS3 parameter object).

When constructed, it generates all ParameterValidationRule and ParameterTypeValidator it needs: in fact, It doesn’t elaborate the api spec nor work with api spec Java models during the validation. It does everything when It’s constructed, so It iterates through various parameters and It generates objects needed for validation.

If you read this class, It seems messy, because It’s messy :smile:. This is because of complexity of OAS 3, that forced me to write some little tricks to support all things (like for example to manage the deepObject serialization style).

To give a quick explanation of how this class elaborates parameters:

  1. It checks if it’s supported (parameters with allowReserved: true are not supported)
  2. It checks if the parameter needs a workaround to get validation working and applies the specific workaround
  3. If none workaround is needed, it constructs the correct type validator

Behind the scenes all the validation work is done by validation framework

The router factory

The router factory is intended to give the most simple user interface to generate a router based on an API Spec. In fact, it provides this functionalities:

  • Async loading of specification and its schema dependencies
  • OpenAPI 3 compliant API specification validation (thanks to Kaizen-OpenApi-Parser)
  • Load handlers and failure handlers with operationId
  • Automatic 501 (Not implemented) response for operations with missing handlers (can be enabled/disabled with mountOperationsWithoutHandlers(boolean))
  • Automatic ValidationException failure handler (can be enabled/disabled with enableValidationFailureHandler() and manually configured with setValidationFailureHandler())
  • Path’s regular expression generation (to support matrix and label style unsupported natively from Vert.x)
  • Lazy methods: the generation of the Router is done only when you call getRouter()
  • Automatic mount of security validation handlers

Lazy methods

It’s usual to run into problems regards route declaration order. For example if you declare two routes in this order:

  1. GET /hello/{parameter}
  2. GET /hello/world

With actual Vert.x Router implementation, /hello/world handler will never called, unless you explicitly call RoutingContext#next() inside /hello/{parameter} handler (that causes Router to run the next route matching the pattern). With lazy methods It’s guaranteed that routes will be loaded with order declared inside API specification.

I choose lazy methods also for code style reasons, It helps a lot to manage the code of router factory.

And the final result

With this tools, user can bring OpenAPI 3 power to its Vert.x server implementation as simple as:

OpenAPI3RouterFactory.createRouterFactoryFromFile(this.vertx, "src/main/resources/petstore.yaml", ar -> {
            if (ar.succeeded()) {
                // Spec loaded with success
                OpenAPI3RouterFactory routerFactory = ar.result();
                // Add some handlers
                routerFactory.addHandlerByOperationId("listPets", routingContext -> {
                    RequestParameters params = routingContext.get("parsedParameters");
                    // Handle listPets operation
                routerFactory.addFailureHandlerByOperationId("listPets", routingContext -> {
                    Throwable failure = routingContext.failure();
                    // Something really bad happened during listPets handling

                // Add a security handler
                routerFactory.addSecurityHandler("api_key", routingContext -> {
                    // Handle security here and then call next()

                // Now you have to generate the router
                Router router = routerFactory.getRouter();

                // Now you can use your Router instance
                HttpServer server = vertx.createHttpServer(new HttpServerOptions().setPort(8080).setHost("localhost"));

            } else {
                // Something went wrong during router factory initialization
                Throwable exception = ar.cause();

Next time I’m going to introduce you slush-vertx, a new generator for Vert.x project. Stay tuned!